2. Debugging

This section describes several techniques that can be used to debug your Statix specification if it does not work as you expect.


The single most useful thing you can do when debugging is to make the problem as small as possible! All the techniques you can use for debugging are more effective when the problem is as small as possible. Try to find the smallest example program and Statix specification that still exhibits your problem, and focus on those.

There are three main categories of problems you may encounter:

  1. Errors reported in your Statix files. These may come from syntax errors, unresolved names for modules or predicates, type errors, or problems with illegal scope extension. When these errors are unexpected and not mentioned in Some Common Problems, follow the steps in Basic Checklist and Creating Minimal Examples. If that does not help out, please follow the steps in Getting Help and Reporting Issues.
  2. Unexpected behavior when running Statix on files of your language. This is the most common kind of problems. All debugging techniques after the Basic Checklist are focused on finding and debugging problems in the definitions in your specification. Note that it is useless to try to solve problems of this kind when your specification still has errors!
  3. Analysis fails altogether. This usually results in Analysis failed errors at the top of files or on the project in the Package Explorer. Check the Console and Error Log for reported Java exceptions that can be included in a bug report.

2.1. Basic Checklist

These are some basic things that should always be checked when you encounter a problem:

  • See if the disappears after a clean build (run Project > Clean... and than Project > Build Project on your project). If the problem disappears after a clean build, but then consistently reappears after subsequent editing or building, it should be reported as a potential bug.
  • Are there errors on any Statix files? The behavior of running Statix on your language files is undefined when the specification itself has errors. Check the Package Explorer as well as the Problems and Console views to make sure none of the Statix files have errors on them. Fix such errors before debugging any other issues!
  • Check for errors in the Package Explorer and in open editors, as well as in the Console, Problems, and Error Log views.
  • See whether the section on Some Common Problems or the remainder of the documentation answers your question already.

2.2. Checking AST Traversal

Ensure that your Statix rules are applied to the AST nodes. It is easy to forget to apply a predicate to a subterm, especially for bigger languages. If you are not sure if the rules are applied to a certain AST node, add a forced note (e.g. try { false } | note "text") to that AST node as follows:

extendsOk(s_lex, Extends(m), s_mod) :- {s_mod'}
  try { false } | note "extendsOK applied",
  resolveMod(s_lex, m) == s_mod',
  s_mod -EXT-> s_mod'.

Build your project and check if the note appears where you expect it. If it does not appear, find the places where those AST nodes may appear and ensure the predicate is applied.

2.3. Checking Reference Resolution

Setting ref attributes on references allows you to check reference resolution interactively in example programs of your language. The following rule shows how to do that using @x.ref := x':

resolveVar(s, x) = T :- {x'}
  query typeOfDecl
    filter P* and { x' :- x' == x }
    min $ < P and true
    in s |-> [(_, (x', T))],
  @x.ref := x'.

This requires that x and x' are both names from the AST. Now write some example programs and check if references resolve to the definitions you expect, by Ctrl + Click / Cmd + Right Click on the reference.

Note that statix/References must be included in one of your ESV files for this to work. This is by default the case for generated projects that use Statix.

2.4. Interpreting Error Messages

The error messages produced by Statix include a part of the trace of the failing constraint, to make it easier to figure out where the error originated. A typical error message may look as follows:

  [(?q.unit-wld61-10,(?q.unit-x'-11,?q.unit-T-5))] == []
> query filter ((Label("units/name-resolution/interface!EXT"))* Label("units/name-resolution/default-impl!var")) and { (?x',_) :- ?x' == "q" } min irrefl trans anti-sym { <edge>Label("units/name-resolution/default-impl!var") < <edge>Label("units/name-resolution/interface!EXT"); } and { _, _ :- true } in #p.unit-s_mod_4-4 |-> [(?q.unit-wld61-10,(?q.unit-x'-11,?q.unit-T-5))]
> units/name-resolution/interface!resolveVar(#q.unit-s_mod_2-4, QDefRef(QModInModRef(ModRef("P"),"B"),"q"),?q.unit-T-5)
> units/statics!typeOfExpr(#q.unit-s_mod_2-4, VarRef(QDefRef(QModInModRef(ModRef(…),"B"),"q")), ?q.unit-T-5)
> units/statics!defOk(#q.unit-s_mod_2-4, VarDef("e",VarRef(QDefRef(QModInModRef(…,…),"q"))), #q.unit-s_mod_2-4)
> ... trace truncated ...

As this looks daunting at first, we break it down. At the top is the constraint that failed; in this case an equality constraint. Below that are several lines prefixed with > that show where the constraint above it originated. We see that the equality originated from a query, which itself originated from one of the rules of resolveVar, which was applied in one of the rules of typeOfExpr etc. As these traces can get very long, they are truncated to five entries.

Now we explain some more details of what we can see here:

  • Errors may contain unification variables of the form ?FILENAME-VARNAME-NUM or ?VARNAME-NUM. These are instantiations of the meta-variables in the specification. The variable name VARNAME corresponds to the name of the meta-variable that was instantiated, and can be helpful in reasoning about the origin of a unification variable. When the name corresponds to a functional predicate name, it is a return value from that predicate. The file name is the file that was being checked when the unification variable was created. Due to Statix’s operation, this can sometimes be the project root instead of the actual file.
  • Scope values are shown as #FILENAME-VARNAME-NUM or #VARNAME-NUM. (Rarely they appear in the exploded form Scope("FILENAME", "VARNAME-NUM")).
  • Predicate names are prefixed with the name of the module they are defined in. For example, defOk is defined in units/statics and therefore appears as units/statics!defOk in the trace. Note that the predicate name is prefixed with the Statix module that defines the predicate. (The rules for the predicate may be defined in other modules.)
  • The trace shows which predicates were applied, and to which arguments. It does not show which predicate rule was chosen! This can often be deduced from the line above it in the trace, but if unsure, use a forced note (see Inspecting Variables) to check your expectation.
  • Error messages are fully instantiated with the final result. This means that variables that appear in error messages are free in the final result of this Statix execution. Therefore, we do not have to consider the order of execution or the moment when the error message was generated when interpreting error messages!

The section on Some Common Problems contains tips on how to deal with many error messages.

2.5. Inspecting Variables

Inspecting the values assigned to meta-variables can be very helpful to debug a specification. Variables cannot be automatically inspected, but we can show their values by forcing a note in the rule where the variable appears. The following rule shows how to do this for the intermediate type T of the assigned variable:

stmtOk(s, Assign(x, e)) :- {T U}
  T == resolveVar(s, x),
  try { false } | note $[assignee has type [T]],
  U == typeOfExp(s, e),
  subtype(U, T).

2.6. Inspecting the Scope Graph

Inspecting the scope graph that is constructed by Statix can be very helpful in debugging problems with scoping and name resolution queries. After type checking, view the scope graph of a file using the Spoofax > Statix > Show scope graph menu. Note that in multi-file mode, the scope graph is always the graph of the whole project. Therefore, creating a small example project with only a few files can be very helpful (see also Creating Minimal Examples).

Here is an example of such a scope graph:

scope graph
  #q.unit-s_mod_2-4 {
    relations {
      units/name-resolution/default-impl!var : ("e", UNIT())
    edges {
      units/name-resolution/interface!LEX : #s_1-1
  #p.unit-s_mod_4-4 {
    relations {
      units/name-resolution/default-impl!var : ("b", UNIT())
    edges {
      units/name-resolution/interface!LEX : #p.unit-s_mod_2-6
  #p.unit-s_mod_2-6 {
    relations {
      units/name-resolution/default-impl!mod : ("B", #p.unit-s_mod_4-4)
    edges {
      units/name-resolution/interface!LEX : #s_1-1
  #s_1-1 {
    relations {
      units/name-resolution/default-impl!mod : ("E", #q.unit-s_mod_2-4)
                                               ("P", #p.unit-s_mod_2-6)

The scope graph is presented as a list of scopes, with the relation entries and outgoing edges from that scope. Remember that the names of the scopes match the names of the meta-variables in the specification! For example, #p.unit-s_mod_4-4 originated from a meta-variable s_mod. Paying attention to this is very helpful in figuring out the structure of the graph.

Some useful questions you can ask yourself when inspecting the scope graph for debugging:

  • Does the graph have the structure I expect from the current example program? Are all the scopes that I expect there, and are all the scopes that are there expected? Do all scopes have the expected relations in them? Do the have the expected outgoing edges?
  • When you are debugging a certain query, consider the scope in which the query starts, and execute the query in the given graph. Are the necessary edges present? Does the regular expression allow those edges to be traversed? Are you querying the correct relation, and is the filter predicate correct for the data you want to match?

When considering these questions, it can be helpful to use the ideas from Inspecting Variables to verify the scope a query is executed in, or to show the scope that is created for a definition, and match those with what you see in the scope graph.

2.7. Creating Minimal Examples

Creating a minimal example is one of the most useful things you can do when debugging. It helps you to get to the core of the problem, but it also benefits all of the other techniques we have discussed so far. Having a smaller example makes it easier to inspect the scope graph, makes it easier to inspect variables as there are fewer, and reduced the number of error messages to review.

An example is a file, or set of files, in your langauge, where Statix does not behave as you expect. A minimal example is usually created by starting from a big example that exhibits the problem. Try to eliminate files and simplify the example program while keeping the unexpected behavior. The smaller the program and the fewer rules in your specification are used for this program, the easier it is to debug.

2.8. Testing Predicates

Sometimes creating a minimal example program in your language is not enough to fix a problem. In such cases writing Statix tests is a great way to test your definitions in even more detail. In a Statix test you can specify a constraint and evaluate it to see how it behaves. For example, if you suspect a bug in the definition of the subtype predicate, you could test it as follows:

// file: debug.stxtest
resolve {T}
  T == typeOfExp(Int("42")),
  subtype(T, LONG())

The .stxtest file starts with resolve and a constraint, which can be anything that can appear in a rule body. After that, the test may specify imports, signature and rules sections like a regular Statix module. A test is executed using the Spoofax > Evaluate > Evaluate Test menu. Evaluation outputs a .stxresult file, which looks as follows:

  T |-> INT()

  scope graph

  *   INT() == LONG()
    > statics!subtype(INT(), LONG())
    > ... trace truncated ...



The test result shows the value of top-level variables from the resolve block (in this case T), the scope graph that was constructed (in this case empty), and any messages that were generated (in this case one error).

These tests are a great way to verify that the predicate definitions work as you expect. Apply your predicates to different arguments to check their behavior. Even more complicated mechanisms such as queries can be debugged this way. Simply construct a scope graph in the resolve block (using new, edges, and declarations), and execute your querying predicate on the scopes you have created. As a starting point, you can take the AST of your example program (using the Spoofax > Syntax > Show parse AST menu), and use that as an argument to your top-level predicate.

Creating a self-contained Statix test is a good way to isolate a problem. Instead of importing all your definitions, copy the relevant definitions to the test (in a rules section), and try to create the smallest set of rules and predicate arguments that still exhibit the problem you are debugging. A self-contained test is also very helpful when asking others for help, as it is much easier to review and run than having to setup and build a complete language project.

2.9. Some Common Problems

  • Predicates fail with amb(...) terms as arguments. These terms indicate parsing ambiguities, which should be fixed in the grammar (SDF3) files.

  • Errors in your specification appear at incorrect places (e.g. sort or constructor declarations). In such cases, the declaration is referenced from an invalid position anywhere in your specification, but due to the non-deterministic order of constraint solving the error appears at the observed position. The best approach to solve these issues is to comment away all usages, until the error disappears. Then, in the last commented position, the declaration is used incorrectly.

  • One or both of the fileOk(...) or projectOk(...) predicates fail immediately, for example with the error messages:

    statics!fileOk(#s_1-1,Test([Prog("A.mod",Decls(…)),Prog("B.mod",Decls(…)),Prog("C.mod",Decls(…))])) (no origin information)
    statics!projectOk(#s_1-1) (no origin information)

    In such cases, you have probably renamed the top-level file, or moved the declarations of these predicates to another file that is imported. Assuming the predicates are now defined in the module statics/mylang as follows:

    // file: trans/statics/mylang.stx
    module statics/mylang
    imports statics/mylang/program
      projectOk : scope
      fileOk : scope * Start
      fileOk(s, p) :- programOk(s, p).

    If this module is the top-level module of your specification, then you have to change the call to stx-editor-analyze in trans/analysis.str such that the first term argument (which specifies the module to use, by default "statics") is the new module name (in this case statics/mylang).

    On the otherhand, if you kept statics as the top-level module and have it import the module statcs/mylang, then you have to change the call to stx-editor-analyze in trans/analysis.str such that the second and third term argument (which specify the predicates to apply to projects and files, respectively) are qualified by the module name (in this case "statics/mylang!projectOk" and ""statics/mylang!fileOk, respectively).

  • Files of your language are only analyzed by Statix after they are opened in an editor in Eclipse. There are several reasons why this may be hapening:

    • The project containing the files is not a Spoofax project. A spoofax project must contain a metaborg.yaml. If it is a Maven project, the packaging must be one of spoofax-{language,test,project}.

    • The project containing the files does not have a dependency on your language. Spoofax only analyzes files of your language if the metaborg.yaml configuration contains a compile dependency on the language definition. This should look similar to the following:


      compile: - org.example:your-language:1.0-SNAPSHOT

    • The language is missing. If a language dependency is missing, this is reported with errors on the console. Make sure your language definition project is open in Eclipse and that is is successfully built.

    • Eclipse is not configured to automatically build files. This can be enabled by selecting Project > Build automatically from the Eclipse menu.

    • The project in Eclipse did not get the Spoofax nature. Imported Maven projects with one of the spoofax-* packagings normally get the Spofoax nature automatically, but sometimes this doesn’t work correctly. Non-Maven projects always have to be assigned the Spoofax nature manually. This can be done with Spoofax > Add Spoofax nature in the context-menu of the project containing the files.

  • A lot of errors are reported. It happens that a single problem in the type checked program leads to the failure of other constraints (cascading errors). For example, an unresolved name might lead to errors about subtype checks that cannot be solved, import edges that cannot be created, etc. Here are some tips to help you find the root cause of the probem:

    • Differentiate between failed and unsolved constraints. The cause of a problem is usually found best by looking at the failed constraints. For example, an unresolved name might result in an error on the equality constraint between the expected and actual query result. Errors on unsolved constraints are marked as _Unsolved_. Unsolved errors are often the result of uninstantiated logical variables.

      Predicates remain unsolved if the uninstantiated variable prevents the selection of an applicable rule for the predicate. For example, an unsolved error subtype(INT(), ?T-1) is caused by the free variable ?T-1 which prevents selecting the appropriate rule of the subtype predicate.

      Queries remain unsolved if the query scope is not instantiated, or if variables used in the matching predicate (such as the name to resolve) remained free. For example, an unsolved error query filter (e Label("typeOfDecl")) and { (?x',_) :- ?x' == ?x-5 } min irrefl trans anti-sym { <edge>Label("typeOfDecl") < <edge>Label("P"); } and { _, _ :- true } in ?s-3 |-> [(?wld0-1,(?x'-2,?T-4))] cannot be resolved because the scope variable ?s-3 is free, and the free variable ?x-5 would prevent matching declarations. Use of the variables ?x'-2 and ?T-4 might cause more unsolved constraints, since these also remain free when the query cannot be solved.

      Edge and declaration assertions remain unsolved if the scopes are not instantiated. For example, the edge assertion #s_2-1 -Label("P")-> ?s'-5 cannot be solved because the variable for the target scope ?s'-5 is not instantiated. Unsolved edge constraints in particular can lead to lots of cascading errors, as they block all queries going through the source scope of the edge.

    • If it is not immediately clear which error is the root of a problem, it helps to figure out the free variable dependencies between reported errors. Consider the following small example of three reported errors:

      subtype(?T-5, LONG)
      #s_3-1 -Label("P")-> ?s'-6
      query filter ((Label("P"))* Label("typeOfDecl")) and { (?x',_) :- ?x' == "v" } min irrefl trans anti-sym { <edge>Label("typeOfDecl") < <edge>Label("P"); } and { _, _ :- true } in #s_3-1 |-> [(?wld4-1,(?x'-2,?T-5))]

      For each of these we can see which variables are necessary for the constraint to be solved, and which they might instantiate when solved. The subtype predicate is blocked on the variable ?T-5. The edge assertion is blocked on the scope variable ?s'-6. The query does not seem blocked on a variable (both the scope and the filter predicate are instantiated), but would instantiate the variables ?x'-2 and ?T-5 when solved.

      We can conclude that the subtype constraint depends on solving the query, so we focus our attention on the query. Now we realize that we query in the scope of the unsolved edge assertion. So, the query depends on the edge assertion, and our task is to figure out why the scope variable in the edge target is not instantiated.

2.10. Getting Help and Reporting Issues

If the techniques above did not help to solve your problem, you can ask us for help or report the issue you found. To make this process as smooth as possible, we ask you to follow the following template when asking a Statix related question:

  1. Single sentence description of the issue.
  2. Spoofax version. See About Eclipse; Installation Details; Features, and search for Spoofax.
  3. Statix configuration: single-file or multi-file mode. Multi-file mode is enabled when the observer setting in in your ESV looks like observer: editor-analyze (constraint) (multifile).
  4. Steps to reproduce. Best is to include a small, self-contained test (see Testing Predicates above) so that others can easily run the test and reproduce the issue! If that is not possible, provide a (link to) a project, including an example file, that shows the problem. Keep the project and the example as small as possible, and be specific about the relevant parts of your program and of your specification.
  5. Description of the observed behavior. Also mention if the problem occurs consistently, or only sometimes? If only sometimes, does it occur always/never after a clean build, or does it occur always/never after editing and/or building without cleaning?
  6. Description of the expected behavior.
  7. Extra information that you think is relevant to the problem. For example, things you have tried already, pointers to the part of the rules you think are relevant to the problem etc. If you tried other examples that show some light on the issue, this is a good place to put those. Again, it is best if these also come as self-contained tests!

Example. An example bug report described using the format above:

Spoofax version:
Statix setup: multi-file

Steps to reproduce:
Execute the test in ``example1.stxtest``.

Observed behavior:
Sometimes an error is reported that the ``query`` failed.
The problem does not occur consistently. On some runs, the error appears, but not on others. This
does not seem related to cleaning or building the project.

Expected behavior:
The test is executed and no errors are reported. Scope ``s1`` is reachable from ``s2``, so the
query return a single result, and ``ps != []`` should therefore hold.

Extra information:
The test in ``example2.stxtest`` is very similar. The only difference is that the predicate
``nonempty`` has an extra rule for the singleton list. The predicate is semantically the same, as
the extra rule fails, just as the general rule would do on the singleton list. However, this
example never gives the unexpected error.

The bug report is accompanied by two self-contained tests. One illustrates the problem, while the other shows a very similar variant that does not exhibit the problem.

// example1.stxtest
resolve {s1 s2}
  new s1, new s2, s2 -I-> s1,
  reachable(s1, s2)



  reachable : scope * scope
  reachable(s1, s2) :- {ps}
    query () filter I*
             and { s1' :- s1' == s1 }
             min and true
             in s2 |-> ps,

  nonempty : list((path * scope))
  nonempty(ps) :- ps != [].
// example2.stxtest
resolve {s1 s2}
  new s1, new s2, s2 -I-> s1,
  reachable(s1, s2)



  reachable : scope * scope
  reachable(s1, s2) :- {ps}
    query () filter I*
             and { s1' :- s1' == s1 }
             min and true
             in s2 |-> ps,

  nonempty : list((path * scope))
  nonempty(ps) :- ps != [].
  nonempty([_]) :- false.